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Tutorial Clean up and optimize ubuntu 12.10 quantal quetzal, ubuntu server and any version

Discussion started by Draft, Apr 11, 2013.

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  1. Draft

    Draft Administrator Staff Member Administrator

    For cleaning up Ubuntu 12.10 , you can use GUI applications like ubuntu tweak and/or bleachbit and with baobab to check disk space but I prefer to use the terminal.


    Here are the commands That I use to save space and clean up all ubuntu 12.10 versions ( Ubuntu, Lubuntu, Xubuntu … )


    Cleaning up Ubuntu using the terminal


    Let’s start by checking the occupation of disk space you can use the command


    df -a


    then check the size of the main folders
    Code:
    sudo du -sxm  /[^p]* | sort -nr   | head -n 15

    Remove unnecessary libraries and packages:


    To delete all package dependencies removed
    Code:
    sudo apt-get autoremove

    delete the files (.deb) of the packages that are no longer installed in the system;
    Code:
    sudo apt-get autoclean

    The following command is really interesting, because it allows the removal even of the configuration files. This can be useful when you want to reinstall applications from scratch.
    Code:
    [b]sudo apt-get purge[/b]

    clean is much more radical than autoclean. It removes any files .deb from the apt cache, including those relating to the packages currently installed. This command allow a good a good recovery of disk space counterpart is that if you reinstall a package it have to be downloaded. (1.2 GB recovered)
    Code:
    [b]sudo apt-get clean[/b]

    ##r remove from the cache (/ var / cache / apt) any package, except for the lock files


    we can tie together the commands with:
    Code:
    sudo apt-get autoremove && sudo apt-get autoclean && sudo apt-get purge && sudo apt-get clean

    ( I recovered 1.2 GB )


    Now, check and resolve any errors or broken dependencies with:
    Code:
    sudo apt-get check ; sudo apt-get -f install

    Remove orphaned libraries
    Code:
    [code]sudo apt-get install deborphan 
    sudo apt-get remove --purge `deborphan`; sudo apt-get autoremove
    or
    sudo deborphan | xargs sudo apt-get -y remove --purge
    and[/code]


    To search and cleaning unused configurations


    To search and cleaning folders and unused configurations files we can use :
    Code:
    sudo dpkg --purge `dpkg -l | egrep "^rc" | cut -d ' ' -f3`

    to seek only
    Code:
    dpkg -l | egrep "^rc" | cut -d ' ' -f3

    Remove Old Kernel


    Each version of the kernel can occupy up to 150 MB. If you have downloaded the headers you get 250MB of space. Therefore becomes crucial periodically remove some of the older kernels.


    You must be logged in to view this contentheck the current kernel t


    uname -r


    View the installed kernels


    Code:
    dpkg --list | grep linux-image

    Code:
    maurizio@Lub12120:~$ dpkg --list | grep linux-image
    ii  linux-image-3.5.0-16-generic		  3.5.0-16.24							   amd64		Linux kernel image for version 3.5.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
    ii  linux-image-3.5.0-17-generic		  3.5.0-17.28							   amd64		Linux kernel image for version 3.5.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
    ii  linux-image-extra-3.5.0-16-generic	3.5.0-16.24							   amd64		Linux kernel image for version 3.5.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
    ii  linux-image-extra-3.5.0-17-generic	3.5.0-17.28							   amd64		Linux kernel image for version 3.5.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
    ii  linux-image-generic				   3.5.0.17.19							   amd64		Generic Linux kernel image

    Lists the headers installed
    Code:
    ls /usr/src | grep 'linux-headers'

    First remove the headers
    using somethings like this
    Code:
    sudo apt-get purge linux-headers-3.5.0-16

    then remove any specific kernel that is no longer needed
    Code:
    sudo apt-get purge linux-image-3.5.0-16-generic

    ( 0.6 GB recovered )


    Remove unnecessary location data packets


    To remove packages and languages ​​that do not involve using the program localpurge.
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install localepurge

    .
    In the window that appears after installation, select the languages ​​you wish to protect.
    Here you can select the languages ​​that interest us.
    for example we can check:
    en
    en_GB
    en_US
    en_GB.UTF-8
    en_US.UTF-8


    then
    Code:
     sudo localepurge

    to reconfigure localpurge type
    Code:
    sudo dpkg-reconfigure localepurge

    To save space: remove o shrink files


    Let’s start by checking the folders size into home directory.
    You can use the command


    home directory


    Let’s start by checking the folders size into home directory.
    You can use the command
    Code:
    du -sm * .[^.]* | sort -nr   | head -n 15

    Files to check periodically to save space:


    .xession-errors


    One of the files that can grow up to tens of GB and that may need to check is the file:
    /home/<myhome>/.xsession-errors


    This file can be erased from time to time.


    or to reduce it and keep last 200 lines of messages
    Code:
    	cd ~
    	tail  -n 200 .xsession-errors  > xsession-errors
    	mv  xsession-errors .xsession-errors

    A home directory that you can grow a lot is the directory /cache.
    There there are the browsers cache so to clean up it I prefer to use browser commands.


    The directory /home/my-home/tmp should be checked and emptied every so often.


    directory /var


    at the root level, from time to time, check the /var direcotry :
    /var/log/
    /var/tmp/…
    /var/cache/…


    to display the size of the /var
    Code:
    sudo du -sxm /var/* | sort -nr | head -n 15

    Alert. You should only delete files. Absolutely not delete the folders that contain them.


    Large size file


    May be useful to check if exist large size files everyware e for any users.
    The command for 750MB size files may be like:
    Code:
    sudo find / -size +750M -exec ls -lhG {} \; | more

    Services


    When you start ubuntu like any S.O. are activated services that are not always necessary with the inevitable resource consumption. To check the services that are not strictly necessary on a terminal you can use sysv-rc-conf.


    to install
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install sysv-rc-conf

    to start with
    Code:
     sudo sysv-rc-conf

    Check or uncheck the options to set the start whether or not a service in a given runlevel (Less services are running more resources are available).


    Free up RAM


    To release the RAM could be useful
    Code:
    sudo -s   
    [i]Write the data in the buffer memory to disk.[/i]
    sync  
    [i]Let's free some memory cache inactive[/i]
    echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

    more: You must be logged in to view this content


    Optimize Ubuntu


    Manage archives


    Install applications to manage archives of files compressed.
    If one needs to use the various formats of compressed files evaluate the installation of the following packages.
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install unace unrar zip unzip p7zip-full \
    	p7zip-rar sharutils rar uudeview mpack lha arj cabextract file-roller

    Common Codecs


    A few common codecs
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install libavcodec53 libavformat53 libavutil51 libpostproc52 lame \
    libcdaudio1 libdvdnav4 libdvdread4 libfaac0 libfaad2 libfftw3-3 libgsm1 libid3tag0 \
    libjack-jackd2-0 libmad0 libmms0 libmp3lame0 libmpcdec6 libmpeg2-4 libjpeg-progs \
    mencoder libxine1-ffmpeg  mplayer2 mplayer-gui

    Medibuntu


    Perhaps you have to evaluate installation of non-free-codec. “Medibuntu (Multimedia, Entertainment & Distractions In Ubuntu) is a repository of packages that cannot be included into the Ubuntu distribution for legal reasons (copyright, license, patent, etc). ” You must be logged in to view this content
    Code:
    sudo -E wget --output-document=/etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/$(lsb_release -cs).list
     
    sudo apt-get --quiet update
    sudo apt-get --yes --quiet --allow-unauthenticated install medibuntu-keyring
    sudo apt-get update

    w32codecs video codecs for popular proprietary formats not natively supported by mplayer You must be logged in to view this content


    libdvdcss2 for play encrypted DVD You must be logged in to view this content


    Ubuntu 32bit
    Code:
    	sudo apt-get install w32codecs libdvdcss2

    Ubuntu 64bit
    Code:
    	sudo apt-get install w64codecs libdvdcss2

    FSlint


    FSlint is a useful application to search for duplicate files and not only in Ubuntu and Debian Linux ..
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install fslint

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    GUI


    bleachbit is an effective way to clean a Linux system like Ubuntu: apt cache, browsers cache …


    install
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install bleachbit

    be used as either a user as root


    Ubuntu-Tweak


    Ubuntu Tweak allows configuration via GUI Ubuntu easily. Cleaning the cache of web browsers … and the removal of obsolete kernel, Configuring themes, sounds, default applications …


    install :
    Code:
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak

    Device busy


    In case of error device busy proceed similarly to what reported in this post You must be logged in to view this content


    List of useful applications


    You must be logged in to view this content


    Links:
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    chong likes this.
  2. thanks sa tutorial. .
     
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