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Today In Science History

Discussion in 'General Chat' started by PurpleFox, Jul 10, 2015.

  1. Owen Chamberlain

    Born 10 Jul 1920.
    American physicist who shared (with Please or Register to view links) the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physics in 1959 for their discovery of the antiproton. This previously postulated subatomic partic

    Edward H. Lowe

    Born 10 Jul 1920; died Please or Register to view links1995 at age 75.
    American Please or Register to view links of Kitty Litter. After Navy duty (1941-45), Lowe joined his father's company in Cassopolis, Mich., selling industrial absorbents, including sawdust and an absorbent Please or Register to view links called Fuller's Earth. In 1947, Lowe suggested the use of the clay instead of ashes for his neighbor's cat's box to avoid sooty paw prints. It worked well and Lowe thought other cat owners would use this new cat-box filler. He filled ten brown bags with clay, wrote the name "Kitty Litter" on them and began selling it through the local pet store. By 1990, his marketing effort had grown into a clay mining and consumer product business, the largest U.S. producer of cat-box filler, now Please or Register to view links, 99% dust free, and sanitized against odor-causing bacteria. He held 67 US and foreign patents.

    Kurt Alder

    Born 10 Jul 1902; died Please or Register to view links1958 at age 55.
    German chemist was the Please or Register to view links (with Otto Diels) of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1950 for their Please or Register to view linksof the Diels-Alder reaction (1928), or diene synthesis, a widely used method of synthesizing cyclic organic compounds. In this type of reaction, a compound containing two double bonds separated by a single bond (i.e. a conjugated diene) adds to a suitable compound containing one double bond (dienophile) to give a ring compound. In the dienophile, the double bond must have a carbonyl group on each side. The reaction proceeds in the mildest conditions, is of general application, and hence of great utility in synthesis. It is used in the synthesis of natural products, such as sterols, vitamin K, cantharides, and synthetic polymers.

    Dr. Harry Nicholls Holmes

    Born 10 Jul 1879; died Please or Register to view links1958 at age 78.
    American chemist who crystalized vitamin A. In Apr 1937, Time magazine reported that he obtained pale yellow crystals that were frozen out of a wood alcohol solution containing oil from mackerel livers. The crystals disclosed a vitamin potency of 3,000,000 international units.

    Maurice Lugeon

    Born 10 Jul 1870.
    Swiss geologist who provided the first comprehensive interpretation of the Alps as a whole.

    Nikola Tesla

    Born 10 Jul 1856; died Please or Register to view links1943 at age 86.
    Serbian-American Please or Register to view links and Please or Register to view links who designed and built the first alternating current induction motor in 1883. He emigrated to the United States in 1884. Having discovered the benefits of a rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating-current machinery, he expanded its use in dynamos, transformers, and motors. Because alternating current could be Please or Register to view links over much greater distances than direct current, George Westinghouse bought patents from Tesla the system when he built the power station at Niagara Falls to provide electricity power the city of Buffalo, NY

    Alvan Graham Clark

    Born 10 Jul 1832; died Please or Register to view links1897 at age 64.
    American astronomer, who joined his father and brother in the family firm of Alvan Clark & Sons, world-famous makers of exceptional lenses for refracting telescopes, supplied to various observatories in the U.S. and Europe. His fascination with astronomy, which began in school, continued through his life. In 1861, while viewing Sirius during a test of a new lens, he observed the faint twin star beside it, Sirius B, which had been predicted almost two decades earlier by Friedrich Bessel in 1844. He discovered fourteen double stars in all. He went on total-eclipse expeditions to Jerez, Spain (1870) and Wyoming (1878). Carrying on the family business, after the deaths of his Please or Register to view links and brother, Clark made the 40" diam. Please or Register to view links of the Yerkes telescope (the world's largest refractor). He died shortly after their first

    Carl Culmann

    Born 10 Jul 1821; died Please or Register to view links1881 at age 60.
    German bridge and railway engineer whose graphic methods of structural analysis have been widely applied to engineering and mechanics. He wrote the first book on graphic statics, published in 1866. Stress trajectories are one of the original topics presented in this book. In 1849-1850, Please or Register to view links spent two years traveling in England and the United States to study bridges, which he later wrote about in Germany. He designed numerous bridge structures at the newly organized Zürich Polytechnicum. The works of Culmann, among other things, have been taken up for the design of the central arched bridges of the Eiffel Tower, and were also quoted by Pier Luigi Nervi in his patent on the construction of reinforced concrete-slab floors.

    Robert Chambers

    Born 10 Jul 1802; died Please or Register to view links1871 at age 68.
    Robert Emmet Chambers, Jr. was a Scottish naturalist and publisher who co-founded a company, W. & R. Chambers, Ltd., in Edinburgh (1832, with his brother, William) which released a variety of inexpensive, educational works, including Chambers's Encyclopaedia (1859-68). Robert wrote, but published with careful anonymity through another agent in England, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844) in which he melded contemporary speculative theories relating to evolution of the cosmos and of life forms, a precursor for Darwin's theories. The controversial book presented the origin of the solar system by the nebular hypothesis and traced organisms from spontaneous generation through the fossil record from simple to more advanced life forms. Darwin later criticized its model of progression that assumed sudden leaps independent of adaptation or natural selection. It was only posthumously that the 12th edition (1884) revealed Chambers as the author.

    Roger Cotes

    Born 10 Jul 1682; died Please or Register to view links1716 at age 33.
    British mathematician and astronomer.


    In 1962, Telstar 1, the world's first geosynchronous active communications satellite, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida., to relay TV and telephone signals between the United States and Europe. Pioneered by AT&T, it set the stage for far easier access to information, with much greater speed. When Telstar was put into Please or Register to view links for the first satellite television broadcast, it made possible the first live television signals sent across the Atlantic. Viewers in France and England saw President Kennedy conduct a press conference, and audiences in the United States watched French singer Yves Montand and the changing of the guard at England's Buckingham Palace. A U.S. passive telecommunications satellite, Please or Register to view links, had been launched 12 Aug 1960.

    Seat-belt patent

    In 1962, a U.S. patent was issued to Swedish Please or Register to view links, Please or Register to view links, for the Please or Register to view links seat-belt (No. 3,043,625). His lap and and shoulder design is now familiar as the passenger-restraint safety device in cars that has saved countless lives. His design replaced the earlier style of a single safety belts strapped across the body, with the buckle placed over the abdomen, which often caused severe internal injuries in high-speed crashes. Bohlin assigned the patent to Volvo, the car manufacturer for whom he worked. From Aug 1959, Volvo incorporated Bohlin's seat belt into the vehicles they manufactured. The company also made the design freely available to other car manufacturers to Please or Register to view links more lives

    Parking meter

    In 1958, the first parking meters were installed in England (625 installed).

    Police radio

    In 1933, the first police radio system began operating in Eastchester Township, NY.

    Scopes monkey trial

    In 1925, the “Scopes monkey trial” began in Dayton, Tennessee and ran for 12 days. A local school teacher, Please or Register to view links, was prosecuted under the state's Please or Register to view links, but was supported by the American Civil Liberties Union. This law, passed a few months earlier (21 Mar 1925) Please or Register to view links the teaching of evolution in public schools. The Please or Register to view links was a platform to Please or Register to view links the legality of the statute. Local town leaders,(wishing for the town to benefit from the publicity of the trial) had recruited Scope to stand trial. He was convicted (25 Jul 1925) and fined $100. On appeal, the state supreme court upheld the constitutionality of the law but acquitted Scopes on the technicality that he had been fined excessively. The Please or Register to view links was repealed on Please or Register to view links

    Helium liquefied

    In 1908, Please or Register to view links made helium liquid at a temperature of 4.2 K (about -269 ºC). He had Please or Register to view links for many years to liquify this element which persisted as a gas to the lowest temperature. Using liquid air to produce liquid hydrogen and then the hydrogen to jacket the liquification apparatus, he produced about 60 cubic centimeters of liquid helium. The gas was liquefied by compressing it, cooling it below the inversion temperature and then allowing it to expand, which causes further cooling resulting in the liquefaction of some of the gas. At his cryogenic laboratory, he had previously liquefied air (1892) in large quantities, and built a large hydrogen liquefier (1906). Onnes received the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his low temperature work.

    Concrete street

    In 1892, the first concrete-paved street was built - Court Avenue, around the Logan County Court House, in Bellefountaine, Ohio. In the 19th century, concrete was called "artificial stone." George Bartholemew convinced the Bellefontaine City Council to try it in 1891. The bond he posted guaranteed the pavement would last at least five years. Over 100 years later, a portion remains, but open only to light traffic to preserve it. The remainder had been replaced by more modern paving materials.

    Indelible pencil

    In 1866, the first U.S. patent for an Please or Register to view links was issued to Edson P Clark of Northampton, Mass. as an "Producing Indelible Writing on Linen and other Fabrics" (No. 56,180). The pencil-lead was composed of gypsum (a hard moisture-resistance compound) and black lead (coloring agent, with optional asphaltum or lamp-black) and silver nitrate. It is the silver nitrate which blackens to make the indelible mark by the action of light or heat. The black lead and gypsum permit the pencil to be readily pointed. The patent described cementing the filling with shellac into grooved cedar wood. Clark held an Please or Register to view links for an indelible composition, but described without the wood jacket (No. 24,195 on 31 May 1859)
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