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Computer Technicians Quick Reference Guide for beginner

Discussion in 'Windows Tools & Tips' started by siRAULlou, Jul 1, 2014.

  1. Computer Technicians Quick Reference Guide

    Useful DOS Commands:


    ipconfig - Windows IP Configuration

    ipconfig will tell you the IP settings for the current computer such as what your current IP is and what subnet/gateway
    you are on. It is great for troubleshooting. Here are the two most useful commands for ipconfig and usage:

    ipconfig /all – Views detailed information about the installed network devices.

    ipconfig /release - This will release any IP information that the computer was given and make your IP address

    ipconfig /renew - This will ask any DHCP servers (usually your modem/router) for a new IP address.

    ping - Check a connection or computer

    is used to check the health of a connection. The ping command will tell you whether a network device is responding
    and how fast it is running. The ping tool can also be used to convert a web address into an IP (eg. Please or Register to view links = Usage:

    ping Please or Register to view links - Pings a webserver to see if it can be reached or is responding. I personally use this to see if the
    computer I am on can reach the internet.

    ping - Pings a local address, often a modem, router or another computer.

    netstat - Displays current TCP/IP connections

    netstat - Will display what connections are currently active on the system. Useful for spotting programs calling back to
    base such as spyware.
    File Management

    type - Open text files
    Similar to Unix’s cat command, this command will display the contents of a text file in DOS as read-only. Usage:
    type c:\sometextfile.txt

    attrib - Make hidden files visible

    can change the attributes of a file, such as whether its a system file or its hidden. This is especially useful to
    technicians because critical files such as the boot.ini is a hidden system file:

    attrib -H c:\boot.ini - To unhide the boot.ini

    attrib -S c:\boot.ini - To make remove its system file attribute

    For more options with this command, type attrib /?

    find - Advanced file search
    The find command is a very powerful one with many options such as the ability to search for something, but exclude
    certain files. The following command will find all files with .pdf in their name on C:\
    dir c:\ /s /b | find ".pdf"

    For more information in this command and its usage, type find /?

    move - Move files

    Normal usage of the move command would be:

    move file.txt c:\TextFiles\

    However, you can also use it to move only certain files. For example, if I wanted to get all the PDF’s out of a folder and
    move them to another location, but leave all other file types alone, I would do:
    move *.pdf c:\WorkPDFs\

    tree - View the tree structure
    Type tree to see the folder and file structure of the folder you are currently in. You can also use this command to make
    prints of the directory structure by sending the information to a text file with the following command tree > textfile.txt

    systeminfo - Displays information about the system

    systeminfo - Will display information about the system such as the name, version, uptime, specifications and pâtches

    installed (XP Pro only by default).

    tasklist / taskkill - Shows what programs are running on the computer and can kill them

    tasklist - Will display all the processes running and their memory usage.

    taskkill - Will kill a process (XP Pro only by default). Usage would be: taskkill firefox.exe

    sfc - Launches Windows’ system file checker utility
    sfc /scannow - This command will start scanning your computer for any damaged or missing windows system files.
    Useful to run after a virus, adware or spyware attack has damaged core files. Have an XP CD handy for this one.

    chkdsk - Can check a disk and attempt to recover data in bad sectors.

    chkdsk /f /r - This will check a disk for errors and try and fixes information from bad sectors

    chkdsk /x - Forces the volume to dismount first.

    For further information/usage on any of these commands, you can bring up the help for each one of them by typing:
    command /?

    STOP Messages:
    Stop 0x0000000A: IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL
    - This Windows stop error indicates that a kernal mode process or driver
    tried to access a memory location that it did not have permission to access, or at a IRQL that was too high (a kernal
    mode process can only access a IRQL that is lower than or equal to its own IRQL).
    This stop message usually means that there is incompatible or faulty hardware. In personal experience its usually bad
    Stop 0x000000D1: DRIVER_IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL - Note the "Driver" part at the start off the message, this isnt
    the same as the error message above - This Windows stop error indicates that the computer tried to access memory
    using a kernal process which had a IRQL that was too high (as kernal processes can only access IRQLs that it is either
    equal to or IRQLs that less than it). This is usually caused by incorrect or incompatible drivers.
    Stop 0x00000024: NTFS_FILE_SYSTEM - This Windows stop error typically indicates that a problem occured with the file
    NTFS.sys such is the driver that allows the operating system to read and write to NTFS formatted harddrives. This can
    often be caused by harddrive problems.

    Stop 0x000000ED: UNMOUNTABLE_BOOT_VOLUME - This Windows stop error is caused by a Input/Output sub-system
    tried to use the boot volume but failed. This error can occur during an upgrade to Windows XP Professional on
    computers that use faster ATA harddrives or have controllers with the wrong cabling. This can sometimes be caused by a
    failing hard drive.

    Stop 0x00000050: PAGE_FAULT_IN_NONPAGED_AREA - This Windows stop error indicates that information that the
    operating system was looking for was not found in memory (ram). This occurs when the system looks for information in
    the ram that doesn’t exist. This is usually caused by defective RAM (including Ram on your motherboard, L2 cache and
    video card ram).

    Stop 0x0000002E: DATA_BUS_ERROR - This Windows stop error indicates an error in the system memory. It is caused
    when the system tries to access a memory address that doesn’t exist. This usually is caused by defective or failed RAM
    (including those on your motherboard, Level 2 case or the memory on your video card). This can also indicate hard drive
    damage caused by viruses or other computer problems.

    Stop 0x0000007B: INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE - This Windows stop error indicates that Windows XP Professional is
    unable to access the boot volume or system partition of your harddrive during startup.
    Installing incorrect drivers for your harddrives or updating the storage adapter hardware usually causes this error. It is
    also possible that the boot volume or system partition was damaged either by hardware failure or a virus infection.

    Stop 0x000000EA: THREAD_STUCK_IN_DEVICE_DRIVER - This Windows stop error indicates that there is a problem with
    a device driver (such as the video card driver) that is causing the system to pause indefinitely. This problem is usually
    causes when the video card driver is waiting for the video card hardware to become idle but never does. This usually
    indicates that there is a hardware problem with the video device or the video card driver is faulty.

    Stop 0x0000008e: PAGE_FAULT_IN_NON_PAGED_AREA - This is typically caused by faulty RAM or the RAM
    configuration you are running is incompatible with Windows XP.

    Stop 0x00000044: MULTIPLE_IRP_COMPLETE_REQUESTS - This problem is primarily limited to Windows 2000 as is
    caused by a bad driver called "falstaff.sys". This can be stopped by updating this driver from the vendor at
    Please or Register to view links

    Common Router/Modem Login Details:
    1.PNG 2.PNG 3.PNG
    4.PNG 5.PNG

    OpenDNS.com DNS Servers:

    OpenDNS is a alternative DNS service to your ISP’s DNS servers. The advantages of OpenDNS is a safer, faster and more
    reliable interet experience. OpenDNS allows you to put in parental controls, phishing protection, typo correction,
    shortcuts and customization. For more information check out Please or Register to view links
    To use open DNS, set your DNS servers to:
    Primary Server:
    Secondary Server:
    Useful IP Addresses:
    You can ping these addresses if you suspect that the current ISP is having DNS issues. These sites currently respond to
    ping but it would be wise to test a few of them as they can change their IPs at any time or choose not to respond to ping.
    The standard command for pinging a website in command prompt is: ping xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
    Google: /

    BIOS Beep Codes:
    There are any different beep codes for different motherboards that could go on for pages and pages. However, most
    motherboards now days adhere to the IBM standard beep codes with the exception of a few OEMs. Below are the IBM
    beep codes:

    Useful Links:
    HijackThis Log Analyzer
    - Please or Register to view links
    HijackThis.de is a “Hijack This!” Log Analyzer where you paste your Hijack This! logs into the website and it will tell you
    what is potentially malicious and what is safe.

    Test Single File for VirusPlease or Register to view links
    Virustotal allows you to upload a single file to their website and it will be tested using a variety of anti-virus products

    Test Internet Speed - Please or Register to view links
    Speedtest allows you to test the speed of your internet connection, choose multiple mirrors to test from and compare
    your results to other people in the area.

    Find You Public IP Address - Please or Register to view links
    Displays your public IP address, nothing more. Simple but useful.

    Online Virus Scanner - Please or Register to view links
    A online virus scanner to scan your computer for viruses.

    Find Hardware Drivers - Please or Register to view links
    A site with a huge collection of drivers for all sorts of hardware.

    Router Passwords - Please or Register to view links
    Contains a list of the default passwords for various router models.

    Replace Missing or Damaged DLLs - Please or Register to view links
    Contains many different DLL’s which are available for download. Handy when an application is missing a certain DLL that
    is preventing it from running.

    Check Windows Processes - Please or Register to view links
    A searchable list of Windows processes. Just enter the name of the process (for example, svchost.exe) and it will let you
    know whether it is malicious, safe or unneeded.

    Computer Manuals - Please or Register to view links
    This place has 5260+ manuals for various computer manufacturers, parts and peripherals. They have manuals for
    Printers, Laptops, Networking Equipment, Uninterruptible Power Supplies, Scanners, Motherboards, Audio adapters and

    Computer Manufacturer Links - Please or Register to view links
    If you know the name of a computer manufacturer, this list has their web address. A handy site when you are trying to
    find drivers for a rare part.

    Shields Up! Firewall Leak Test - Please or Register to view links
    This website/server probes your computer looking for any open ports and vulnerabilities then creates a report.

    Kellys XP Tweaks - Please or Register to view links
    If there is a little nagging bug in Windows that you cant figure out or just want to disable something that annoys you,
    chances are there is a registry tweak for it here.

    Doug Knox XP Tweaks and Fixes - Please or Register to view links
    Similar to Kellys XP Tweaks.

    List of Open Source Software - Please or Register to view links
    A nicely ordered list for open source (free) software packages.

    Freeware Alternatives:

    Virus Protection

    AVG Free
    - Please or Register to view links
    AVG Free is one of my personal favorites and remains a favorite amonst most of the techicians on the Technibble
    forums. It has a very extensive virus database and will detect anything that a major antivirus brand such as Norton can
    detect. In fact, there have been a few times while I was on the field that AVG found viruses that Norton/McAfee didnt
    detect at all.

    Avira Antivir - Please or Register to view links
    Avira Antivir is an antivirus I have seen only a couple of times on clients machines in the field. I have to say, its resident
    virus shield is awsome. One time when I was onsite, I plugged in my USB drive with all my computer technician tools on
    it. As soon as it was in, Avira detected a virus on my USB drive and asked me what I wanted to do with it. I hadnt run
    anything on the drive, I hadnt even looked at the drive in My Computer yet. Just plugged it in. It turns out it discovered
    the the Eicar virus which is a test file that computer technicians can use to test the capabilities of antivirus software.
    Avira is a little “heavier” on system resources than AVG, but not by much.

    avast! - Please or Register to view links
    Another good antivirus. I’ve seen it many times onsite and it does its job well.
    Child Filtering Software

    K9 Web Protection - Please or Register to view links
    A great parental filter with many features such as the ability to set the protection based on the child’s age.
    Backup Utility

    Cobain Backup - Please or Register to view links
    I really like Cobain Backup and use this piece of software myself. It’s simple enough for home users to setup, yet is
    powerful and feature packed for the computer technicians. Cobain Backup can run as a service and backup to FTPs.

    Office Suite (Word Processing, Spreadsheets etc..)

    Open Office
    - Please or Register to view links
    Open Office looks and feels like the Microsoft Office package. It can do pretty much anything MSOffice can do without
    the nasty price tag.


    Zonealarm Firewall
    - Please or Register to view links
    For the more knowledgeable clients, I recommend Zonealarm, provided they know a little bit about processes and
    security. Otherwise they don’t know what the security popups mean and just allow anything. For the nonknowledgeable
    clients, I just use the built in Windows firewall.

    Media Player

    VLC Media Player
    - Please or Register to view links
    I love VLC. There have been many times where a client cannot play the video they want in Windows Media Player
    because its lacking the correct codec. I just install VLC and it fixes most of their problems. VLC is lighter, faster and less
    prone to breaking than Windows Media Player.

    PDF Creation

    PDF Creator
    - Please or Register to view links
    PDF Creator installs itself as a printer so that it can export to PDF in almost any program that you can print in. Just select
    PDF Creator as your printer and it will save that document as a PDF.

    Resizing Images

    Image Resizer Powertoy
    - Please or Register to view links
    Many of my clients want to send digital photos via email to relatives or post some pictures on eBay. However, most
    digital cameras take poster sized photos which can often be 1mb or more. The Image Resizer Powertoy allows you to
    right click on any photograph, select “Resize Picture” and choose what size you want the picture to be.

    Photo Editing

    - Please or Register to view links
    I used to work as a web developer, so I know my way around graphics software like Photoshop. Ive used Paint.net a few
    times and I must say that it has great features and comparable to Adobe Photoshop, except about $1000 cheaper.

    Picasa - Please or Register to view links
    Organise, edit and share your photos

    PDF Reader

    FoxIt Reader
    - Please or Register to view links
    FoxIt Reader is a lightweight alternative to Adobe Acrobat Reader for reading PDFs. The install file for Adobe Acrobat is
    22mb, FoxIt Reader does it in 2mb and has almost all of the same features.

    Web Browser

    Please or Register to view links

    Opera Web Browser - Please or Register to view links

    Chrome Browser - Please or Register to view links

    Faster, more secure and a better alternative to Internet Explorer.

    Email Client

    - Please or Register to view links
    Faster, more secure and better alternative to Outlook Express.

    Music Player

    Please or Register to view links
    A lightweight and very well featured Music Player. Runs much quicker than Windows Media Player

    Archive Extractor (zip, rar, tar etc..)

    - Please or Register to view links
    7-Zip can create and extract many different archive types such as Zip, Rar, Tar, Arj, .Gz, preventing you from needing
    multiple archive extractors such as Winzip, Winrar, Winace etc.


    Spamfighter Free
    - Please or Register to view links
    I have used this on many clients computers and it works very well. It comes pre trained to deflect most spam and has
    the ability to learn even more based on your preferences.

    Attached Files:

    You must or Register to view Attachment.
    Last edited: Jul 2, 2014
  2. Senpai

    Senpai Support Team Staff Member Support Team

    Thanks dito bro, :D
    siRAULlou likes this.
  3. walang anuman bro
  4. yus15

    yus15 Support Team Staff Member Support Team

    Nice thread (y) Malaking tulong ito sa akin :)
    siRAULlou likes this.
  5. Your Welcome Boss
  6. Nice share and nice thread bro, two thumbs up! (y) (y)
    siRAULlou likes this.
  7. Thanks Sir
  8. THANKS for this Sir...at last i found some forums like this...very informative..:D
    siRAULlou likes this.
  9. Ur Welcome Sir, nakarangalan po namin namakatulong sa inyo po
  10. astig to salamat sa sharing boss.. your the best (y) hindi ko pa nabasa ng buo saka nlang ulit hehehe.. :ROFLMAO:
    1MOB and siRAULlou like this.
  11. hehehe walang anuman po
  12. ang galing thanks 
    maraming salamat....malaking tulong ito sa akin at sa lahat....thanks ulit
  13. You're Welcome sir
    ericky likes this.
  14. Salamat po dito boss. The best ka. Madami ka matutulungan dito. hehe. baka may pang cellphone repair ka din boss dyan. share mo na din. hehe. salamat po ulit(y)(y):D
  15. You're Welcome po wala pa boss eh sa cellphone repair din ako hirap :)
    x_Michael Ron_x likes this.
  16. nag aral po ako cellphone repair kaso 3-days lang negoskwela..
    basic repair makakatulong ako.....
    try ninyo search "cellphone repair tutoral" ... 
    Please or Register to view links eto po sa gusto matuto celphone repair...
    try nyo rin GSM Sandwich..mag myembro lang kau it's free...
    Para po sa gusto matuto basic celphone repair...baka makatulong
    siRAULlou likes this.

  17. sige po pasilip ako ah..
    1MOB likes this.
  18. dhurricane mawiwili ka jan kung matyaga ka Celphone repair ...mag member ka sa GSM sandwich marami ka matututunan....pramiz
    dhurricane likes this.

  19. kailangan pala member para makita lahat hehehe.. sige try ko yan..
    1MOB and ericky like this.
  20. mababait naman tao dun, just follow simple instructions, madali maging member kasi memeber ako dun hehehe... lahat ng problema mo sa celpon mo itanong mo sa mga bihasa dun.....
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