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Tutorial Keep Calm & Learn Grammar

Discussion in 'Academic & Campus Talk' started by queencee, Dec 31, 2015.

  1. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    Grammar Rules

    This is a quick, basic grammar review for NOUNS & VERBS. This reference can be used for term papers, grammar class reviews, preparation for a Call Center Career or simply for anyone confused or curious about the basics of English grammar.


    1. Noun identification
    2. Count, Mass, and Collective Nouns
    3. Plural and Possessive Nouns

    Noun Identification

    What is a noun? A noun is a person, place, thing, quality, animal, idea or activity.

    For example:
    Person — Maria
    Place — Manila
    Thing — Desk
    Quality — Width
    Animal — Dog
    Idea — Independence
    Activity — Navigation

    Spot the nouns in a sentence: Maria went into the city to purchase detergent.

    Nouns: Person — Maria
    Place — City
    Thing — Detergent

    The functions of nouns

    Nouns sometimes function differently in sentences. For example:
    Subject: Maria likes ice cream
    Object of Preposition: He gave the ice cream to Maria
    Subject complement: The best customer is Maria

    Grammar vocabulary: Nominal means any word, or group of words, used as a noun. The nominal word used in the original noun example is Maria.

    Types of Nouns

    The names of specific things, places, and people, like Maria or Manila, are Proper nouns.

    General, colloquial names, like table or house are Common nouns. Common nouns can either be concrete, or abstract.

    When an object is concrete i.e. you can see it and touch it, like a phone or a chair, it is a Concrete noun.

    When it is a quality or idea, like freedom or justice, it is an Abstract noun.

    Count Nouns

    Count nouns are anything that can be counted. They are singular or plural. Plurals usually end with “s.”

    Singular — Car
    Plural — Cars

    Singular — Chair
    Plural — Chairs

    Singular — Dog
    Plural — Dogs

    Irregular Examples

    Singular — Mouse
    Plural — Mice

    Singular — Child
    Plural — Children

    Most nouns ending in s, sh, o, or ch need an -es suffix to be plural

    Singular — Bus
    Plural — Buses

    Singular — Dish
    Plural — Dishes

    Singular — Potato
    Plural — Potatoes

    Singular — Church
    Plural — Churches

    Nouns ending in a consonant followed by y become plural by changing the y to i and adding -es

    Singular — Mystery
    Plural — Mysteries

    Mass Nouns are nouns that cannot be counted and they usually do not have a plural form

    Examples: Freedom, sand, money

    Collective nouns refer to groups of people and/or things. Unlike mass nouns, they can usually be counted, so they usually have plural forms.


    Singular — Staff
    Plural — Staffs

    Singular — Herd
    Plural — Herds

    Plural Nouns

    Plural nouns are the nouns that have been changed into their plural states by adding -s or -es. Remember your irregular nouns, such as mice and children! They too are plural nouns.

    Possessive Nouns

    Nouns can be possessive and express ownership, usually following the use of “of.”

    Example: The life of Maria

    Most singular possessives are formed by adding an apostrophe and “s.” If the noun is plural, the possessive form becomes “s” and apostrophe.

    Singular Common: Dog
    Singular Possessive: Dog’s
    Plural Common: Dogs
    Singular Possessive: Dogs’

    Exception: if the plural noun does not end with an “s,” the possessive is formed by adding apostrophe and “s.”


    Singular Common: Woman
    Singular Possessive: Woman’s
    Plural Common: Women
    Plural Possessive: Women’s


    A pronoun takes the place of an unknown noun. The unknown noun is called the “antecedent.”

    Example: Maria wondered if she was late for work.

    Maria is the antecedent of “she.” Instead of saying: Maria wondered if Maria was late for work, “she” appears to take the place of “Maria.”

    The Nine forms of Pronouns:

    Personal, possessive, indefinite, reflexive, reciprocal, intensive, interrogative, relative, and demonstrative.

    The pronoun must always agree with antecedent, so if the antecedent is male, the pronoun must be male, if the antecedent is plural, the pronoun must be plural, etc.


    Correct: When Maria bought the detergent, she used her credit card.
    Incorrect: When Maria bought the detergent, they used his credit card.

    Pronoun Cases

    Nominative Cases: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who

    The nominative, or subjective, case pronoun is the subject of the sentence.

    Examples: She went to the store.
    Who has the book?
    I am he.
    This is she.

    Objective Cases: Me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom

    These function as direct or indirect objects.

    We gave HER the bus money.
    We gave IT to HER.
    I don’t know to WHOM I speak.
    The bag is with HER.

    Possessive Cases: My, mine, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs, your, yours, whose

    The possessive case pronoun shows possession

    That is MY bag.
    That bag is MINE.
    HER bus was late.
    The bags are all HERS.

    Personal Pronouns can refer to the person/people speaking (First person,) spoken to (second person,) or spoken ABOUT (third person.)

    First person subject singular: I
    First person subject plural: We
    First person object singular: me
    First person object plural: us

    Second person subject singular: you
    Second person subject plural: you
    Second person object singular: you
    Second person object plural: you

    Third person subject singular: he, she, it
    Third person subject plural: they
    Third person object singular: him, her, it
    Third person object plural: them

    Example: I wanted to give them to her, but he wouldn’t let me.

    I — first person singular
    Them — third person plural
    Her — third person singular
    He — third person singular
    Me — first person singular

    Possessive Pronouns

    Like regular nouns, personal pronouns can also be possessive. Possessive Determiners are possessive forms of personal pronouns. Possessive Determiners must have a following noun.

    First person determiner singular: MY (book)
    First person determiner plural: OUR (book)
    First person pronoun singular: Mine
    First person pronoun plural Ours

    Second person determiner singular: YOUR (book)
    Second person determiner plural YOUR (book)
    Second person pronoun singular: Yours
    Second person pronoun plural: Yours

    Third person determiner singular: IS, HER, ITS (book)
    Third person determiner plural: THEIR (book)
    Third person pronoun singular: His, hers, its
    Third person pronoun plural: Theirs

    Example: They have MY bags but they know they’re MINE.

    My — Determiner, dependent on “Bags”
    Mine– stands in place of “My bags.”

    Indefinite Pronouns

    These have no specific antecedents. These are usually identified with general words like: all, any, some, or none.


    Singular: another, both, nobody, everything, nothing, somebody, everyone, no one, something, etc.

    Plural: all, many, most, much, some

    Examples: Somebody has her bags.
    Plural: Everyone knows about Maria’s bags.

    Indefinite pronouns are only pronouns if they are used ALONE. If they are used with a noun, they become indefinite adjectives.

    Pronoun: Both knew they were Maria’s bags.
    Adjective: Both baggers knew they were Maria’s bags.

    If the subject performs actions TO or FOR itself, the action in the sentence passes BACK to the subject and becomes a reflexive pronoun.

    First person singular: Myself
    First person plural: Ourselves
    Second person singular: Yourself
    Second person plural: Yourselves
    Third person singular: Himself/Herself/Itself
    Third person plural: Themselves

    Example: We asked OURSELVES where her bags were.

    “We” is the doer and receiver of the action “ask.”

    Intensive Pronouns are used to point back to the noun or pronoun for emphasis.

    Example: I myself knew they were Maria’s bags.

    The intensive pronoun does not always need to directly follow the noun.

    Example: I prefer walking myself.

    Reciprocal pronouns express mutual action.

    Examples: each other/ each other’s
    One another/one another’s

    Maria and Heather greeted each other.

    Interrogative Pronouns

    These are used to ask questions and can be personal or non-personal

    Personal subject: Who/Whoever
    Personal object: Whom/Whomever
    Personal possessive: Whose
    Non-personal subject: Which
    Non-personal subject: What

    Who has the bags?
    Which bagger has them?
    Whose bags are these?

    Demonstrative Pronouns

    These substitute specific nouns, usually when someone is gesturing toward something.

    Singular: This/That
    Plural: These/Those

    Example: These are for her.


    A verb is an action part of speech. It can also express a state of being, or the relationship between two things. It is most powerful when following a noun. Example: He HIT her. Verbs are the most complicated part of speech because they can sometimes become nouns, depending on their use.

    The three kinds of verbs: transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, and linking verbs.

    Transitive verbs

    These take objects. Transitive verbs carry the action of subject and apply it to the object.

    Example: She TOOK the bags.

    Intransitive verbs

    These do not take an object, but express actions that do not require the agent doing something to something else.

    Example: She LEFT.

    Linking verbs

    These link the agent with the rest of the sentence and explain the link between the subject and the rest of the sentence.

    Examples: appear, grow, seem, smell, taste

    Example: Maria seems tired from shopping.

    The Lay/Lie and Raise/Rise Confusion

    These two pairs of verbs are constantly misused. In each, there is a transitive verb (TRV) and an intransitive verb (INV).

    Lie — Intransitive, means recline or be situated
    Lay — Transitive, means to place or put something

    Rise — Intransitive, means to get up.
    Raise — Transitive, means to lift something up.

    Infinitive — INV: Lie
    TRV: Lay
    INV: Rise
    TRV: Raise
    Past Tense — Lie (Lay)
    Raise (Raised)
    Last edited: Jan 3, 2016
    Markylobz, EARZE, Pinknots and 10 others like this.
  2. jjarongay

    jjarongay Forum Veteran Established

    Yeehee! May English Teacher na tayo. (y)
    queencee likes this.
  3. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    yuginiwayuginiwa here is your English Tutorial request. I want you to review your grammar first and then on my next post, I will teach you how to sound good over the phone. Goodluck on your chosen career. - Coach QueenCee
    vault09 and _TURBO_ like this.
  4. jjarongay

    jjarongay Forum Veteran Established

    Thanks dito boss, nadagdagan na naman ang laman ng utak ko (y)
    queencee likes this.
  5. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    jjarongayjjarongay ahahaha thank you for the appreciation.
    Last edited: Dec 31, 2015
    vault09 and jjarongay like this.
  6. abangan ko yang how to sound good over the phone ma'am:geek:
    queencee likes this.
  7. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    TamsyTamsy, you said "Teach me." I hope this helps.

    globetrottersglobetrotters sure, I will mention you when it is posted.
    vault09 likes this.
  8. medyo alanganin boses ko over the phone e.:love:
    queencee likes this.
  9. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    (Eye bats rapidly)...ahehehe
    vault09, _TURBO_ and Soul Surfer like this.
  10. Xelos

    Xelos Eternal Poster Established

    lay = lie ?:eek:

    how about the plural?
  11. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    :p read and keep calm.
    vault09 likes this.
  12. vault09

    vault09 Honorary Poster Established

    Awesome piece of explanation, quite informative and useful for one and all grammar lovers.(y)
    queencee likes this.
  13. queencee

    queencee Forum Guru Established

    vault09vault09 thank you sir for the positive comment.
    vault09 likes this.
  14. they are different verbs..
    for their plural forms just add s
    hope this helps